Dr Neha Jingala
University of Delhi, Delhi
Dr. Neha Jingala is presently working as an Assistant Professor at Delhi College of Arts and Commerce (University of Delhi) in the Department of Journalism. She has extensive academic experience of more than a decade and has worked with Doordarshan, various national dailies, and many reputed organizations of similar stature.
An alumna of Delhi College of Arts and Commerce, where she did her Bachelors in Journalism and later earned her M.A., M.Phil. and Ph.D. from Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak in Journalism and Mass Communication. Dr. Jingala’s extensive research work focuses on Print Media, Women Empowerment, Dalit Issues, New Media, and Film Studies. She has published widely in reputed academic journals and presented several papers at various national and international conferences/ seminars.
Public Relations Society of India
Day 15 of PR – Mass Communication Orientation Programme for Students with
Dr. Neha Jingala (University of Delhi) on 15th October 2021
15th October, 2021
On the fifteenth day of the lecture series, Dr. Neha Jingala was the guest speaker for this academic initiative by PRSI. Dr. Neha Jingala is currently working as the Assistant Professor at the Delhi College of Arts and Commerce (University of Delhi) in the department of Journalism. She has extensive experience of more than a decade and has worked with Doordarshan, various national dailies, and many reputed organisations.
She delivered a lecture on ‘Photography’ and first talked about DSLR (Digital Single-Lens Reflex) camera. She then discussed the basics of photography by focusing on the formats of the camera. She took the session forward by discussing the sensors and enlightened the audience with – CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) and CCD (charged coupled device). Dr. Jingala also talked about the basic three types of lenses and then further added and explained a few more lenses with examples. She wonderfully explained the ‘Exposure Triangle. She gave tips as well on shutter speed and aperture. The speaker also covered types of metering in her session. Lastly, she briefly explained Histograms. She also explained in detail the importance of composition. At the end of the session, the speaker gave various tips and suggestions to the audience for capturing shots. The session was well conducted and was presented with interesting examples. The viewers and listeners gave wonderful remarks.
The Public Relations Society of India started 15 Day PR – Mass Communication Orientation, inaugurated by Shri Naresh Bansal – a member of Rajya Sabha, Mr. Phileppe Borremans – President of International Public Relations Association and organized by Dr. Ajit Pathak – National President of Public Relations Society of India and Mr. Y Babji – Secretary General of Public Relations Society of India. The programme was conducted in association with the Vivekananda Institute of Professional Studies and sponsored by HPCL.
पब्लिक रिलेशंस सोसाइटी ऑफ इंडिया
छात्रों के लिए जनसंपर्क और जनसंचार अनुस्थापन कार्यक्रम
पंद्रहवा दिन: फोटोग्राफी
डॉ नेहा जिंगाला
(दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय, दिल्ली)
नई दिल्ली: 15 अक्टूबर, 2021
पब्लिक रिलेशंस सोसाइटी ऑफ इंडिया के 15 दिवसीय पीआर-मास कम्युनिकेशन अभिविन्यास कार्यक्रम के आखिरी दिन पर अतिथि वक्ता थी प्रोफेसर डॉ नेहा जिंगाला जी। डॉ नेहा जिंगाला वर्तमान में दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय के दिल्ली कॉलेज ऑफ आर्ट्स एंड कॉमर्स में पत्रकारिता विभाग में सहायक प्रोफेसर के रूप में कार्यरत हैं। उनके पास एक दशक से अधिक का व्यापक शैक्षणिक अनुभव है और उन्होंने दूरदर्शन, विभिन्न राष्ट्रीय दैनिक समाचार पत्रों और समान कद के कई प्रतिष्ठित संगठनों के साथ काम किया है।
छात्रों के लिए ऑल इंडिया पीआर मास कम्युनिकेशन ओरिएंटेशन प्रोग्राम के आखिरी सत्र में डॉ नेहा ने ‘डिजिटल फोटोग्राफी’ के विषय पर चर्चा की। उन्होंने शुरुआत करते हुए विभिन्न प्रकार के पेशेवर कैमरों के बारे में विस्तार से चर्चा क। इसके साथ ही उन्होंने वर्षों पहले उपयोग किए जाने वाले पेशेवर कैमरों की तुलना समकालीन समय में उपयोग किए जा रहे कैमरों से करते हुए एक समानांतर आकर्षित किया।
डॉ. नेहा ने एक डीएसएलआर कैमरे के कामकाज की व्यापक समझ दी जो छात्रों के लिए बहुत मददगार साबित हुई। उन्होंने सीसीडी और सीएमओएस कैमरा सेंसर के बारे में विस्तार से चर्चा की। उन्होंने विभिन्न प्रकार के लेंसों जैसे मानक लेंस, वाइड-एंगल लेंस, टेलीफोटो, जूम लेंस, मैक्रो लेंस, फिश-आई लेंस और सुपर-टेलीफोटो लेंस की समझ विकसित करने में छात्रों की मदद की और उनके उपयोगों के बारे में बताया।
सम्पूर्ण व्याख्यान डेप्थ ऑफ फोकस, एक्सपोजर त्रिकोण, मीटरिंग पैटर्न, हिस्टोग्राम, ऑटोफोकस एवं शटरस्पीड, आईएसओ और एपर्चर के उपयोगों की चर्चा से भरा था। अंत में, उन्होंने फोटोग्राफी में एक तस्वीर के रंगों और सौंदर्यशास्त्र के महत्व पर जोर दिया और दर्शकों को शॉट्स कैप्चर करने के लिए विभिन्न सुझाव दिए।। आज का कार्यक्रम बहुत ही रोचक और ज्ञानवर्धक था जो की फेसबुक और यूट्यूब लाइव पर आयोजित किया गया था। यह 15 दिवसीय पीआर – मास कम्युनिकेशन ओरिएंटेशन पोग्राम की पहल पब्लिक रिलेशंस सोसाइटी ऑफ इंडिया द्वारा की गई थी, जिसका समापन आज के समापन समारोह के मुख्य अतिथि- भारत के पूर्व केंद्रीय शिक्षा मंत्री – डॉ. रमेश पोखरियाल “निशांक जी” एवं विशिष्टअतिथि- श्री रिचर्ड ए लिनिंग – पूर्व अध्यक्ष अंतर्राष्ट्रीय जनसंपर्क संघ द्वारा किया गया। हिंदुस्तान पेट्रोलियम (एच.पी.सी.एल) एवं विवेकानंद इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ प्रोफेशनल स्टडीज (वी.आई.पी.एस) इस कार्यक्रम के सहयोगी भागीदार रहें है।
Summary of the Presentation
By Mr. V.S.R. Naidu
Summary of 15th PRSI Orientation Program of Mass Communication for Students, the subject being “ PHOTOGRAPHY “ and the Speaker being Dr. Neha Jingala, University of Delhi, New Delhi.
Dr. Neha Jingala initiated her speech with the basics of digital photography. She said that with the advent of digital technology and digital software, a photographer can for the most part rely on a DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) camera.
She explained that DSLR is an advanced and refined tool that offers the ability as in film version cameras to view the subject through the same lens that records the image onto the sensor. This is achieved via a mirror and a pencil prism so that what is seen is what one gets, she explained the features and the phenomenon of working a DSLR. Whenever the shutter is pressed to take a picture, a mirror between the rear of the lens and the image sensor flips out of the way, the camera shutter opens and the sensor is exposed for the required time. Meanwhile, the camera’s microprocessor records the multitude of information the image sensor has actually recorded to the camera’s memory card. This is incredible in itself, she exclaimed referring to the cameras used by Sports & Press Photographers which manage 8 frames a second for all intents and purposes.
Dr. Jingala referred to 2 types of DSLR cameras. The first being a traditional-looking camera based on 35mm film camera bodies. Photographers who normally use both medium and large format professional cameras discovered that DSLR provided super image quality when compared to the scan that was possible from their film, she clarified.
The format of the camera refers to the size of the negative of film cameras and the size of the image sensor in the digital cameras. Large format refers to cameras with a 4”/5” negative and larger whereas medium refers to cameras between 35mm and large format, she explained.
The second type of DSLR is based on the medium format.
These cameras are used for pictures that require higher image resolution such as landscape and still life.
These cameras are like miniature computers and therefore essential to keep camera software and filmware up to date, she suggested.
She compared DSLR cameras with that of Computers that keep on changing the models with the latest and update technology every year.
Talking about SENSOR, Dr. Neha Jingala explained that the image sensor to the digital camera replaces the film. There are mainly 2 types of Sensors used in DSLR cameras. They are CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) and CCD (Charged Coupled Device).
While purchasing a camera, she advised to check the files in the image editing software on a computer. Some cameras are good for low light when using a sensor sensitivity of 400 iso or higher while others are fantastic in full natural light and terrible when used with a high iso sensor sensitivity.
Choosing a suitable sensor for the type of photography is what matters, she pointed out.
Dr. Jingala while talking about LENSES mentioned that when a camera is purchased, it is normally possessed with a standard lens or a zoom lens. There are many more types of lenses with different shapes and sizes available in the market with specific characteristics to facilitate the photographer to use them according to need, and these lenses basically are of 3 types, she mentioned. They are;
1) WIDE ANGLE,
2) STANDARD and
Before explaining in-depth about 3 types of lenses, she clarified that a lens particularly belongs to a category based on it’s focal length. For Standard lens, 50mm is the traditional focal length while less than 50mm is considered as a Wide angle lens and greater than 50 mm is considered to be a Telephoto lens. And anything that is beyond 300mm are known as Super Telephoto lens.
Talking about STANDARD LENS, Dr. Jingala said that it is the lens with 50mm focal length gives an angle of view of between 45 and 55 degree which is approximately the same as that of human eye and therefore produces an image with a natural look. Consequently, these lenses enjoy wide application for general purposes.
Coming to WIDE ANGLE LENS, as they are abundantly available ranging in focal length from 8mm to 35mm, the choice is huge and also confusing, she said.
She further mentioned that wider the lens, the more specialised it’s use become.
Super wider lenses can distort the image and they have a limited valuable use. As such, either a 24mm or a 28mm lens would be better useful, she suggested.
She stated that 35mm Wide angle lens is often used as a standard lens because although the focal length is slightly less than the 55mm standard lens, the difference is not huge and will give the photographer the benefit of extra depth of field to shoot where space is limited and subject is large. Wide angle lenses are also useful for landscape photography, she pointed out.
Talking about TELEPHOTO LENSES, Dr. Jingala made a point that the objects appear to be miles away when shot with a Standard lens appear to be only feet away in front of the photographer when shot with the Telephoto lens because these lenses bring the subject right into the heart of the picture. Examples being the Cricket match or Football match where the Photographers use Telephoto lens to capture the action.
The Telephoto lenses have many more uses because of its narrow angle of acceptance and extra magnification that allow the photographer to foreshorten the distance between himself and the point of interest of the picture. The lens allows to capture a small portion of the scene without losing the subject as in the case of landscape photography when trying to isolate details in a rather large area.
She further clarified that the longer focal length of Telephoto lens means it has much less depth of field than a wide angle or even standard lens so that a sharp clear subject can be created.
It’s advisable to have the picture in focus while shooting landscape pictures for which it requires long shutter speeds and definitely small aperture to create greater depth of field. A tripod will be necessary to hold the camera perfectly still, she cautioned.
For portraits, a short Telephoto lens with 90mm -135mm focal length is ideal, she said.
Dr. Jingala while talking about other types of lenses, referred the ZOOM LENS which at one point of time could not match the cheaper Fixed focal length lenses in quality, but in due course, came out of the situation with some of the sharpest and faster lenses. The advantage of the Zoom lens is that it replaces two to three normal/fixed focal length lenses but it is expensive, she mentioned.
She advised to choose a constant Zoom lens instead of variable one, because the aperture and exposure remain same while zooming.
She then started to talk about MACRO LENSES which are available in 35mm, 50mm, 60mm or also 100 or 105mm in focal length. They are used for extreme close up photography. For example, insects on flowers, coins, stamps or any other small objects.
She also referred about a category of Macro Zoom lenses that can produce an image of an object at 123 ratio.
There are some lenses which produce images that look like fish’s eye. Hence, they are called FISHEYE LENSES. They are extremely wide angle which can produce an angle of view of 180 degrees either with a circular or full frame image with distorted edges and therefore they are limited in use, she disclosed.
Incase tall buildings are to be photographed, the suitable lenses are SHIFT LENSES but they are expensive, Dr. Jingala stated.
A Shift lens allows the camera to remain straight and parallel to the building and uses moving front lens unlike incase of Standard lens.
Dr. Neha Jingala then described in detail about EXPOSE of pictures. There are 3 basic photographic aspects need to be discussed. First the Exposure. It is the amount of light controlled by aperture and shutter speed that reaches the image sensor.
Secondly, it’s the f-stops. These are the measure of the size of the opening or aperture in the lens. The larger the f-stop number, the smaller the aperture and the smaller the f-stop number, the larger the aperture and the more light the lens will get to the image sensor.
Thirdly, it’s about Shutter speed. It is the measure of the duration or length of the time that the shutter stays open. The longer the shutter stays open, the more light will be allowed to reach the image sensor. Faster shutter speed freeze the action and often require more light and larger aperture. On the other hand, slower shutter speeds enable pictures to be taken in lower light with a small aperture. A correctly exposed digital picture is a file that shows a full range of tools from deep shadows to bright highlights in detail across the entire image. Ensuring this, a decision can be taken afterwards whether a full tonal range is required to appear when the image is printed. It’s necessary to ensure full tonal range from the start to get right exposure when shooting in jpeg format, she cautioned.
Then the question arises, how to control the LiGHT? to register a fully toned image on digital camera sensor Dr. Jingala exclaimed and said that it’s done by allowing the correct amount of light to reach the digital sensor.
Dr. Jingala stated that there are 3 factors that control the path of light viz SENSOR SENSITIVITY that is iso, second is SHUTTER SPEED and the third is PORTRAIT.
While talking about digital era, she said that one can now see the result of setting instantly. DSLR takes into account the brightness of the subject, the contrast, the colour of the picture and the area to be focused. When set for automatic exposure, the camera circulates all this instantly. One can come over automatic exposure and can overexpose or underexpose or can correctly expose manually but it comes by experience, she commented.
Unlike in Film photography, the Digital photography allows to shoot a group of pictures or even a single picture at one iso setting. By changing the iso on the same memory card, one can keep shooting, she clarified.
Dr. Jingala then started talking about SHUTTER SPEEDS and gave some basic tips about it.
Incase of fast moving subjects like racing car or someone riding a bicycle, she advised to start with 1/1000th second of shutter speed.
Incase of everyday pictures such as Portraits and normal views, she suggested to use a shutter speed of 1/60th second to probably 1/250th second speed.
At the sametime, if the light is very bad, the tip she gave is not to go below 1/60th second.
Dr. Neha Jingala gave tips incase of APERTURE also. It is also called as f top.
As a general rule f 5.6 gives a little bit of depth of field provided the focal length of the lens is not too long and wide enough to enable high shutter speeds, she said.
She also advised to open the aperture to its maximum when it is dark.
When lots of depth of field is needed or wish to slow down the shutter speed, stop down to f 11 and when using a short lens, use f 16, she suggested.
Adjusting the Exposure is what matters, the image can be made lighter by increasing the exposure or darker by decreasing it. If the image is consistently looking better by underexposing by one stop or by overexposing by half a stop, then use the exposure composition setting to build this factor into the camera’s light metering. This facility enables to under or over exposure by upto 3 f stops or full shutter speeds. Once it is set, the camera will usually maintain the adjustment until it is changed. Most professional photographers use the exposure compensation feature to fine tune the meter of their cameras, Dr. Jingala stated.
She then briefed about EXPOSURE MODES. On most digital cameras, one can find variety of exposure modes typically referred to as a Virtual priority that is a e or av, Shutter priority that is a e or tv and the Program as a e p and Manual as m.
The Aperture priority mode enables to set the f stop and the camera will then adjust the shutter speed to give the correct exposure. If more depth of field is needed, a small f-stop can be used to get a picture in focus. Using the shutter priority mode, one can set the shutter speed and the camera selects the f-stop aperture to give the correct exposure. At the sametime, if a waterfall with blur is to be photographed, set slower shutter speed and the aperture accordingly. However, enough light in both modes is required to expose the pictures within the range of shutter speeds and the aperture being used, she clarified.
Talking about MANUAL MODE, where the shutter speed and the aperture are set manually and independently of each other referring either to the camera’s built in meter or to a handheld meter.
Professionals tend to use manual exposure and handheld light meters which allows them to take multiple meter readings in various points of the subject frame.
Most advanced DSLR cameras have an auto bracket setting which sets the camera to take 3 pictures automatically in rapid succession, one at the correct exposure, one overexposed and the other one underexposed, Dr. Jingala described.
Most advanced DSLR cameras along with the automatic exposure modes have some additional settings which can affect the exposure, Dr.Neha Jingala mentioned while describing about different METERING PATTERNS.
She then talked about SPOT METERING and stated that it is a good setting when shooting manually. The reading is taken from a very small section in the centre of the frame, sometimes as little as 1% of the total image. It relates to the lighting condition which differs between the photographer where he is positioned to take the picture and the place of the subject. In such condition, the photographer has to set the camera to expose for the sunlight around the subject but not the shade around him.
Talking about the 2nd type of Metering, she said that it’s more biased towards the center of the frame with less attention to the corners and edges.
The 3rd Metering pattern is handheld meter. A handheld meter today is often a combination of an exposure meter and a flash meter and is generally used as an incident light meter which means that the meter measures the light falling on the subject rather than the light reflected off the subject the way the camera does it’s metering, she explained. This highly accurate and precise instrument is used by holding the meter in front of the subject with its dome pointing towards the camera.
The main use of this meter in this digital world is when using supplementary flashes. It has the ability to measure the brightness intensity of a non-dedicated studio flash, a capability that is not found in the meter of the camera. This tool is essential when setting up complicated shots with studio-type lighting, she described.
Dr. Neha Jingala while dwelling upon HISTOGRAMS, said that it is infact a simple bar chart. The chart illustrates how the pixels in an image are distributed by graphing the number of pixels at each colour intensity level. This shows whether the image contains enough detail in the shadows shown on the left side of the Histogram, Mid tones which is shown in the middle and the Highlights that is shown on the right hand side to create a good overall exposure.
If the Histogram looks alright, it doesn’t matter whether the image looks light or dark on the screen, she clarified.
Briefing about AUTOFOCUS, Dr. Jingala remarked that like most settings on DSLR, Autofocus should be referred to as automated rather than automatic.
There are many options within the menus of the cameras to fine-tune the focussing, she said.
Dr. Jingala stressed the need to learn to use autofocus function found on high-end camera right from start, known as “one shot or single servo”. She advised using this where pictures are to be composed when the subject is at centre. In the viewfinder, there will be either crosshairs or a f that is autofocus pointing to signify the point on which the camera focus. Point the camera directly at the subject so that the a f point is aimed at the primary point of focus of the picture. By using this one-shot single servo mode, the auto focus is activated as the shutter is initially depressed and then lock into place as the camera focuses on the chosen point. Holding down the button halfway to hold the focus, the pictures can then be recomposed perfectly, allowing better composition, she explained the phenomenon. But cautioned that this feature is totally unsuitable for moving subjects because ones locked in the focus does not move until the shutter is pressed. Focusing is needed to shoot every picture.
In the autofocus function, some scenes are unreliable such as snowy seas, wide-open blue skies with very low lighting conditions. In such a situation, where the camera is unable to focus on any point against the snow or blue sky, set the one-shot function, lock the focus on something and then recompose the picture, she explained.
There is another function known as “Back button focussing” where one has to enable one of the functions/buttons on the back of DSLR to activate the focussing. So, one can enable or disable the focussing at will while shooting. On some advanced DSLRs, when this facility is combined with the ability to manually subject one of the many focal points, it amounts to using the camera’s autofocus system to it’s full potential, she stated.
Dr. Neha Jingala made a further approach towards another important aspect of photography-DEPTH OF FIELD. The distance between the nearest and the farthest object in an image that to be in acceptable focus is Depth of field. The focal length and the aperture of the lens used and the focus distance go on Depth of field. The longer the focal length, the less the depth of field and vice versa. The smaller the aperture, the greater the depth of it, other things being equal. Telephoto lenses have less depth of field than wide-angle lenses which provide the most depth of field, for example being a landscape picture. On a sunny day, the usage of a tripod with long shutter speed is required. For shooting action photographs, using a higher shutter speed is ideal. If the subject is traveling at speed, a small aperture would give more of the subject in focus, thus making easier to get the shot.
She also mentioned that some persons use a higher sensitivity for their sensor thus enabling higher shutter speed but that would definitely decrease the image quality.
Dr. Jingala continued her speech referring to COMPOSITION. Unfortunately, there is no auto composition button at hand to frame pictures. Photography is about seeing something pictorial, recording it in an interesting and graphic way. Guidelines will not help if the subject doesn’t have the content. They are there to help to make the most of what is seen and photograph. To compose pictures properly is to produce a pleasing picture. This can be easily achieved in most cases. Sometimes it may be as simple as turning the camera vertically and take the picture. What matters is to think about the picture and not get too bogged down in technical details. But it is essential to understand the technical side also to enable to express creativity, she pointed out.
Dr. Jingala described various tips and suggestions for photographing different kinds of subjects.
- Incase where the subject is free and dominantly upright, fill the viewfinder with the subject and shoot the picture vertically. If the subject is a horizontal picture, shoot it in the landscape mode.
- One of the advantages of the compact digital camera is the ability to use the LCD screen on the rear of the camera as a viewfinder. It is easy to frame the whole picture far better when LCD is used.
- In order to get accustomed to filling the frame, She suggested to make use of different types of lenses and shoot more and more pictures.
- When closeup portraits are shot, try experimenting with framing the subjects and they need not always have to be in the centre of the frame looking directly at the camera but can also compose the picture of a person with left or right side looking into the centre of the camera, she clarified.
- She suggested to look through a viewfinder and divide the screen mentally into 3 horizontal and 3 vertical sections and wherever the lines intersect are the places to position the subject.
- When photographing a landscape, it is also a good compositional practice to place the horizon of ski line on one of these imaginary lines. It is also important to keep horizons straight, she cautioned.
- While photographing small subjects like pets and babies, she suggested to get down to their level, lie down, look up at them and then shoot.
- A good tip for these DSLRs according to Dr. Jingala is to hold the camera in the floor or above the head to gain a more dramatic viewpoint and view the image using the LCD to control the composition. This way one can achieve viewpoint that would not have been possible if the picture been composed through a normal viewfinder.
*If the frame contains visible or long continuous lines such as roads, river, fences, buildings etc, she advised to take advantage of these lines to lead to the main subject of the picture when composing the image. This works well when the lines originate from bottom corners of the photographs.
- Referring to colour in composition, she left the choice to the photographer to see and appreciate colours and aesthetics of different combinations. Colour can give a warm and cold feeling to a picture reflecting the perceived views on colour. Winter scene can be enhanced by the use of blue in the picture to give that chilly feeling, for example a red beach umbrella on golden sun evoke the feeling of warmth although it’s not usually possible to add colours to the photographs.
Dr. Neha Jingala concluded her elaborate and lengthy speech with a warm, mild and soft caution to the photographers; “ BE AWARE OF COLOUR AS YOU ARE LOOKING TO MAKE THAT GREAT AND BEAUTIFUL PICTURE”